Logan Cabinet Shoppes?

I just returned from a week long “vacation” at our new home in the mountains of VA. I say vacation but there wasn’t much leisure involved. Just lots of cleaning, and we still haven’t finished. But we did manage to get some time to walk our 24 acres.  

  

I also had a little time to check this out.  

Compared to my current shop, this one is over 3 times larger. It needs work, but it will make a good project once the rest of the house is done. We just got back to NJ but I’m already anxious to get back to VA. 

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A Semi-simple Steam Box

I’m making some chairs from an oak tree that was taken down in our back yard. These chairs require that some of the parts be steam bent. I’m starting with the simplest of the few chairs that I think I’ll be able to get out of this log, a post and rung rocker. The two long back posts need a gentle bend in the design I’m building. So I needed a steam box. I could have gone the simplest route and bought a PVC pipe and some end caps. That’s not my style though. I like wood.

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The materials for the steam box are pretty simple and available at any home center. There are two six foot 1 x 4s and to six foot 1 x 6s. Plus some nails (mine are cut finish nails), a few plumbing parts and some hinges (I ended up using different hinges).
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The parts to be steamed are supportd above the bottom of the box by some dowels so that the steam can circulate around them. These dowels were spaced about 6″ apart and placed about 1″ above the bottom of the box. Apparently either my 3/4″ auger is oversized (not likely) or this dowel was quite undersized (pretty typical of home center dowels).
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The box is just nailed together. There is no joinery at all as there’s really no need. I used cut finish nails. The end cap is rabbeted on all four sides to provide some resistance to racking.
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The end cap is, again, just nailed on with cut finish nails.
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Time to provide an entrance for the steam. I bored a hole about 1-1/4″ or 1-1/2″ (don’t remember which it was) in diameter. This hole is centered on the bottom of the box.
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Ovder the hole, I screwed a floor flange for iron pipe. This one is either a 3/4″ or 1″ floor flange, I don’t remember the exact size. Bigger is better as you want to fill the box with as much steam as possible. I used brass PEX connectors to attach the supply hose to the box.
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I used brass PEX connectors to attach the supply hose to the box and kettle. The hose is standard heater hose, available in most home centers or auto part stores. It’s designed for high temp applications. The hose is just attached to the PEX connectors with hose clamps so it can be easily disassembled.
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The door on the opposite end is made identically to the end cap. The only difference, obviously, is that it’s attached with hinges. I had to buy these hinges and bend them as the other ones I had didn’t work out. I also picked up a cheap pine knob. Looks nicer than the shiny handle in the first pic.
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Time to add some legs to get the box up above the kettle. I had my apprentice cut the leg stock. Look at that perfect grip on the saw and the proper stance and alignment! She makes a dad so proud :). She cut right to the line too.
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We screwed the legs that she cut to a 2 x 2 block of poplar and then attached them to the bottom of the box with the hinges from the first picture so that they could be folded up for storage. The front set of legs (closer to the door) is also 1″ shorter than the rear set so that the condensate inside the box will drain out rather than pool up inside the box.
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The tea kettle is just an old one that we had laying around. The PEX connector was driven into the spout with a mallet and the hose attached with a hose clamp. The electric burner is a $20 version from the big box store. The kettle will steam this box for at least 2 hours on a single fill of water. There was still plenty of water left when I was done, so I’m not sure how long it will actually go for.
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It works! These legs are shaved to about 1-1/2″ in diameter and they bent without any problem. Well, it took some muscle, but the ratchet straps pulled everything smoothly and the wood bent without any cracking. Granted this is a gentle bend, but it’s a good start.

So the next trial of the steam box will be some back bows and arm rails for a sack back Windsor chair (or two). While the stock for those parts is only on the order of 3/4″ thick or so, the bends are much more dramatic, so they’ll be a much better test of the steam box and the wood from this tree. I’m excited though. This is fun stuff!

Wide Construction Lumber for a Workbench

I get this question a lot ever since building my Nicholson inspired workbench.

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Has your workbench exploded yet from the twisting and warping that has undoubtedly occurred as a result of your use of those wide construction grade boards?

OK. So maybe the questions aren’t worded exactly like that. But I do get a lot of questions about using wide construction grade lumber for a workbench and how to prevent the resulting bench from self destructing. Personally I think this concern is a bit over hyped, but there are some things you should do when building your bench to make sure you don’t have too many problems down the road.

The #1 trick to using wide 2X construction boards for a workbench is to make sure they are dry before you use them. The construction grade 2X stock that many home centers carry is not kiln dried. This means that the miosture content of that stock is going to be very high. Too high to work with right away. If you can, find a supplier who sells 2X stock that has been kiln dried. I was able to buy kiln dried 2X stock for my workbench. So once I brought the boards into my shop and left them stickered there for a couple of months, I could be sure they wouldn’t move much after building the workbench. Since the boards will stay in the shop after the bench is built, the best place to equilibrate them is in the shop space.

If you are not blessed with a supplier in your area that sells kiln dried 2X material, all is not lost. You will simply need to let the boards sit and dry for much longer than you will with kiln dried stock. Bring them into your shop, stack and sticker the boards, and let them sit for several months. Check the moisture content once every week or so and don’t work with the boards until the moisture content stays relatively constant. After they are dry, you may have to re-flatten them, but if you chose your boards carefully, you may not have to flatten them much, if at all.

That brings me to tip #2 for using wide construction grade timber for a workbench. Choose your stock carefully. Even if your stock is kiln dried, but especially if it is not, you want to choose boards that were sawn as close to the center of the tree as possible. This will give the board the greatest amount of “quarter sawn” grain as possible. Wood moves the most in a direction that is tangential to the growth rings. This causes flat sawn boards that are close to the bark (those with near horizontal growth ring patterns on their ends) to cup severely when they move. However, boards sawn close to the center of the tree will cup much less, even if they were not kiln dried. After the boards have sat in your shop for several months, choose the ones that have cupped the least to use for the aprons and top boards. Those with the most cup should be ripped into narrower boards for use as stretchers and cross bearing braces for underneath the top.

This brings me to tip #3. Use the absolute widest and longest boards you can find. Wide, long boards need to come from wide, tall trees. In addition, the widest boards are sawn from the areas of the log that are closest to the center of the tree. Don’t try to save money by purchasing 2x4s for the stretchers and cross bearing braces. These boards are likely to twist and warp on you. These benches are inexpensive enough to build from wide stuff. Trying to save another $10 by buying 2x4s instead of 2x12s will make you curse construction lumber workbenches. Get all of your parts from 2x12s, and the longest ones you can get at that. If you can find 20 footers, they are likely to be flatter and straighter than 8 footers. The bench will cost you a bit more, but you’ll be happier and have a bench with fewer knots in the end.

With workbenches made from DRY construction grade lumber, once everything is assembled, movement is actually very minimal. Contrary to popular belief, softwoods like pine, fir and spruce are extremely stable, when they are dry. Softwoods get a bad reputation for being unstable because they are usually still wet when they are purchassed. Construction lumber is not typically dried to the same level as hardwoods for fine woodworking (at least not here in the States). So as the wood continues to dry, it will typically move. However, once it has been dried to the same level as the hardwoods typically are, most dry softwoods are actually more stable than most dry hardwoods. So the #1 factor in getting a good, stable and flat workbench out of softwoods is to make sure they are adequately dried before you start building with them.

I built my workbench several years ago and have been working with it regularly ever since. It does not have any kind of finish on it, so it is fully exposed to all the humidity swings that occur during the year. I have needed to re-flatten my workbench top exactly one time since building it, and even then, it had moved so little and was so barely out of flat, that it took me less than 10 minutes to do the job. I have no doubts that constrution grade lumber can make a fantastic workbench. With just a little up front preparation, you can have a workbench that will last you several generations without spending a fortune. Being built of construction grade lumber, I am also not afraid to ding it up, scratch it, spill stain on it, drip glue on it or hurt it in any way. I treat it like a workbench, not a piece of furniture, and I know I can replace the top for $20 if it ever gets too far gone. So don’t fear wide boards. Wide boards are your friends.

Tool Storage Boards

I got a question about my wall tool storage system and a request for some additional detailed photos. The idea for these storage boards is not my own. I “borrowed” the concept from an issue of Fine Woodworking Tools & Shops from several years ago when I was still a subscriber. The concept is very ingenious. French cleats screwed into wall studs anchor the system securely to the wall. Tool boards of various widths (depending upon the stock I had on hand when I made them) are hung from the French cleats to allow tools to be attached anywhere and in any configuration. The French cleats make the boards easy to rearrange on the wall, as well as easy to move the tools around on the boards. The boards have another square cleat, the same thickness as the French cleat, attached close to the bottom edge to keep the boards hanging plumb. Tool holders are very simple, consisting mostly of pegs glued into holes bored directly into the boards or short sticks with holes bored in them and a cleat glued underneath to enable the holder to be screwed to the boards. Sometimes, I skipped the cleats and just screwed through the edge of the board if it was narrow enough. So here are a bunch of more detailed photos of the whole system.

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